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The aim of this study was to assess the lactation, reproductive performance, and disorders of dairy cows in Waliso and Ilu districts. A total of 122 respondents who participated in the production of dairy cattle were chosen at random and proportional to their size. The collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version20. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the results such as overall means, standard error (SE), graphs, tables, frequency, and percentage. Daily milk yield of local breed cow was1.890±0.05liters/per/cow/day, while cross breed dairy cows7.410±0.31liters/ cow/day. Cross breed dairy cows produced (1978.4597±0.98) liters/ lactation/cow and native breed cows produced (429.78±17.10) liters /lactation/cow on average. Results showed that local and cross breed dairy cows had lactations length of 7.58±0.05 and 8.90±0.29 months per lactation per year. The average reproductive performance of local and cross breed dairy cows was (AFS) 44.88±0.57and 24.43±0.29 months, (AFC)53.94±0.56and 33.43±0.29 months, (CI)14.35±0.41) and 14.35±0.41months, (DO)161±0.41 and 140±0.49) days, and (NSPC)1.69±0.06 and1.70±0.10 times, respectively. Daily milk yields, average milk yields, and lactation lengths were significantly (P0.05) different between the two Districts. The overall percentages of stillbirths, dystocia, retained fetal membranes, abortions, and mastitis were 8%, 6.35 %, 6.66 %, 12.15 %, and 11.8%, respectively. In inclusion, it could be concluded that the productive lactation, reproductive performance and disorder are relatively low. Thus, indicating that it is an urgent need for well-coordinated efforts of all concerned bodies to boost the productive and reproductive performance there by enhances the livelihood of the dairy farmers.
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