Effect of Aflatoxin Contamination in Dairy Products and its Toxicity on Public Health: The Case of Ethiopian Dairy Sector: A review
Main Article Content
The objective of this review paper was to assess the effect of aflatoxin contamination in dairy products and its toxicity on public health in the Ethiopian dairy sector. Feed contamination by mycotoxins causes serious issues with the economy, food security, and safety. The economic impact can take different forms, direct market costs of missed trade or lower profits resulting from the rejection of contaminated animal products, reduced productivity, animal death, particularly in more sensitive calves, and increased treatment. Nougcake, which is often used as feed for dairy animals, is a significant source of aflatoxin contamination in the peri-urban dairy value chain in Addis Ababa. Aflatoxin AFM is the primary hydroxylated AFB metabolite in milk from cows that were discharged after consuming a meal contaminated with AFB for 12 hours. Prolonged or chronic exposure to aflatoxins has a number of harmful effects on health, including potent carcinogens and may affect all organ systems, especially the liver and kidneys; that cause liver cancer, mutagenic, hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects on cattle. According to Brazilian law, the maximum permitted levels for liquid milk, milk powder, and cheese are 0.5mg/kg,5.0mg/kg and 2.5mg/kg, respectively. As a result, there is increased aflatoxin contamination in both humans and animals. In conclusion, as compared to other countries, the effect of aflatoxin contamination and its toxicity was higher in Ethiopian dairy sector. In order to regulate aflatoxin contamination all coordinated efforts from all relevant groups should work together and further intervention should be implemented via policymakers, dairy sectors, Government and non-Governmental organizations.